Ultrahigh energy density harvested from domain-engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystals under high strain rate loading

Abstract

Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals have triggered revolution in electromechanical systems due to their superior piezoelectric properties. Here the results are reported on experimental studies of energy harvested from (1-y-x)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-(y)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-(x)PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals under high strain rate loading. Precise control of ferroelectric properties through composition, size and crystallographic orientation of domains made it possible to identify single crystals that release up to three times more electric charge density than that produced by PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT 52/48) and PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 (PZT 95/5) ferroelectric ceramics under identical loading conditions. The obtained results indicate that PIN-PMN-PT crystals became completely depolarized under 3.9 GPa compression. It was found that the energy density generated in the crystals during depolarization in the high voltage mode is four times higher than that for PZT 52/48 and 95/5. The obtained results promise new single crystal applications in ultrahigh-power transducers that are capable of producing hundreds kilovolt pulses and gigawatt-peak power microwave radiation.

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